convert atx psu molex

Convert ATX PSU to Bench Supply

Is it possible to use an ATX power supply unit or PSU from an old PC as a bench top power supply to power 5V logic, but with limitations. The standard computer power supply unit (PSU) turns the incoming 110V or 220VAC (alternating current) into various DC (direct current) output voltages suitable for powering the computer’s internal components and with a little bit of imagination it is possible to convert ATX PSU to a bench power supply.

atx psu

Most computer PSU’s range from about 150W up to 500W so their is plenty of power. The original ATX standard connector used for powering the motherboard was a single 20-pin Molex that has all the required +12VDC and +5VDC voltages with huge output currents and short circuit protection as well as a Power-ON wire that allows the PC’s software to turn “OFF” the PSU on shut down.

Firstly and more importantly before you start to convert ATX PSU, make sure that the PSU is unplugged from the mains supply and discharged by letting it sit unconnected for several minutes before you start. This is important! as it could result in a potentially dangerous or even lethal situation due to the high voltages inside the PSU if you decide to dismantle it. Also make sure that the metal box of the PSU is correctly earthed or grounded. You are responsible for your own safety!.

We can not just simply plug the PSU into the mains supply and expect to get the required 5 or 12 volts output. The standard PC power supply unit has two safety mechanisms that prevent it from being switched “ON” without the motherboard attached.

  • Number 1, the PSU requires a “Power-ON” zero voltage signal to start up similar to the “ON-OFF” switch on the front of a PC.
  • Number 2, for the PSU to correctly regulate the +5V output voltage it needs to have some sort of load attached, at least 5W to trick the PSU into thinking its attached to the motherboard

Unfortunately you can not just have the wires left open, luckily both of these issues are easily fixed.

There are several different coloured wires attached to the 20-pin ATX connector providing several different voltage outputs such as +3.3V, +5V, +12V, -12V, -5V as well as a number of black ground wires and a couple signal wires as shown in the following image along with their colour-code and description.

20-pin Molex ATX Connector

20-pin molex connector


Pin outs of the 20-pin connector with the colours of the wires used in a standard ATX PSU connector.

Pin Name Colour Description
1 3.3V   Orange +3.3 VDC
2 3.3V   Orange +3.3 VDC
3 COMMON   Black Ground
4 5V   Red +5 VDC
5 COMMON   Black Ground
6 5V   Red +5 VDC
7 COMMON   Black Ground
8 Pwr_Ok   Grey Power Ok (+5 VDC when power is Ok)
9 +5VSB   Purple +5 VDC Standby Voltage
10 12V   Yellow +12 VDC
11 3.3V   Orange +3.3 VDC
12 -12V   Blue -12 VDC
13 COMMON   Black Ground
14 Pwr_ON   Green Power Supply On (active low)
15 COMMON   Black Ground
16 COMMON   Black Ground
17 COMMON   Black Ground
18 -5V   White -5 VDC
19 5V   Red +5 VDC
20 5V   Red +5 VDC

There are a number of ways to convert a standard computer ATX power supply unit into a usable bench top power supply. You can keep the 20-pin Molex connector attached and connect directly into it or cut it off completely and group together the individual wires keeping the same colours together, reds to reds, blacks to blacks etc.

I cut off the connector to have access to the individual wires and connected them into a screw connector strip to give me a higher amperage output for both the +5V and +12V supplies. You can connect the same coloured wires together using crimp connectors or posts, is the same thing. Some of the other individual coloured wires we need to keep separate as detailed below.

To start up a stand alone PSU for either testing purposes or as a bench power supply, we need to short together pin 14 – Green (Power-ON) to one of the common black wires (ground) which is how the motherboard tells the power supply to turn “ON”. Luckily, pin 15 – Black is next to it so I connected a switch between the Pwr_On signal (pin 14) and Ground (pin 15). When pin 14 is momentarily connected to ground via the switch, the power supply will turn-ON.

Next we need to provide a small load on the +5V (red wires) output to trick the PSU into thinking its attached to the motherboard and to keep the power supply in the “ON” mode. To do this we have to connect a large resistor of 10 Ohms or less, with a standard power rating of 5W to 10W across the +5V output using just one set of the red and black wires, pins 3 and 4 will do.

Remembering from Ohms Law that the power (P), developed in a resistor is given by the equation of: P = I2 × R or P = V2 / R, where: P = power developed in the resistor in watts (W), I = current through the resistor in amps (A), R = resistance of the resistor in ohms (ohm) and V = voltage across the resistor in volts (V). The voltage will be +5V and the power required is 5W or above. Then any standard power resistor below 5 Ohms will do. Remember though that this resistor will get HOT! so make sure its out of the way.

One other option we have is to use pin 8 – Grey (Pwr_Ok) as a visual indication that the PSU has started up correctly and is ready to operate. The Pwr_Ok signal goes high (+5V) when the power supply has settled down after its initial start up, and all the voltages are within their proper tolerance ranges. I used a red LED in series with a 220 Ohm current limiting resistor connected between pins 8 and pin 7, (ground) for this power ready light but anything similar will do, its only indication.

Testing the Power Supply

Once assembled you should end up with something like this.

20-pin molex connections


When you plug the PSU into the wall socket and turn the switch “ON” at the back of the power supply (if it has one), only two voltages should be present at the connector. One is pin 14 the Pwr_ON green wire which will have +5V on it. The second is pin 9 the +5V Standby (+5VSB) purple wire which should also have +5V on it. This standby voltage, is used for the motherboard’s power control buttons, Wake on LAN feature, etc and typically provides about 500mA of current, even when the main DC outputs are “OFF”, so it can be useful as a permanent +5V supply for small power uses without the need to turn the PSU “fully-ON”.

Some newer ATX12V power supplies may have “voltage sense” wires that need to be connected to the actual voltage wires for proper operation. In the main power cables you should now have three red wires (+5V) all connected together and three black wires (0V) connected together as the others have been used for the switch and LED. Also connect together the three orange wires to give a +3.3V output if you require it.

If you have only two orange wires, you may have a brown wire instead which must be connected with the orange’s, the +3.3V for the unit to be able to power up. If you only have three red wires, another wire (sometimes pink) must be connected to them. But check this first.

If everything looks ok then we are good to go and the PSU should switch “ON” giving you a very cheap bench top power supply. You can test the output voltages using a multimeter or connecting a 12V bulb into the different sockets to see if the PSU works. The voltage combinations that can be outputted by the PSU are 24v (+12, -12), 17v (+5, -12), 12v (+12, 0), 10v (+5, -5), 7v (+12, +5), 5v (+5, 0) which should be sufficient for most electronics circuits.

You could also connect a LM317 Adjustable Voltage Regulator, a 5k adjustable potentiometer, a 240 Ohm resistor for biasing and a couple of smoothing capacitors across the +12V supply to give a separate adjustable output voltage from about 2.0 to 12 volts but this is an additional feature.

The 24-pin Molex ATX Connector

In newer desktop PC’s, version 2 ATX power supplies are used called ATX12V. The old 20-pin connector has been replaced by a larger 24-pin Molex connector or even a 20+4pin connector. The four additional pins are: two additional pins numbered 11 and 12 are +12v (yellow), and +3.3v (orange) and the two additional pins numbered 23 and 24 are +5v (red), and ground (black) respectively. The newer ATX12V pin outs and colours are given in the following table for reference.

24-pin Molex ATX Connector

24-pin molex connector


Pin outs of the 24-pin connector with their respective colours of the wires in the PSU cables.

Pin Name Colour Description
1 3.3V   Orange +3.3 VDC
2 3.3V   Orange +3.3 VDC
3 COM   Black Ground
4 5V   Red +5 VDC
5 COM   Black Ground
6 5V   Red +5 VDC
7 COM   Black Ground
8 Pwr_Ok   Grey Power Ok (+5 VDC when power is Ok)
9 +5VSB   Purple +5 VDC Standby Voltage
10 12V   Yellow +12 VDC
11 12V   Yellow +12 VDC
12 3.3V   Orange +3.3 VDC
13 3.3V   Orange +3.3 VDC
14 -12V   Blue -12 VDC
15 COM   Black Ground
16 Pwr_ON   Green Power Supply On (active low)
17 COM   Black Ground
18 COM   Black Ground
19 COM   Black Ground
20 -5V   White -5 VDC
21 +5V   Red +5 VDC
22 +5V   Red +5 VDC
23 +5V   Red +5 VDC
24 COM   Black Ground

The newer type ATX12V PSU’s are a little more tricky to convert as they use a ‘soft’ power switch function and require a much larger external load resistance. To get them to start-up, or switch-ON, the supply must be loaded to at least 20W or 10% of the rated power for the larger 600W+ PSU’s. Anything below this the power supply may run, but regulation will be very poor less than 50%.

Again the voltages that can be output by this unit are the same as before 24v (+12, -12), 17v (+5, -12), 12v (+12, 0), 10v (+5, -5), 7v (+12, +5), 5v (+5, 0). Note that some ATX12V power supplies with a 24-pin motherboard connector may not have the -5V (pin 20) white lead. In this case use the older ATX power supplies with a 20-pin connector above if you need the additional -5V supply.

An old PC power supply unit makes an excellent and cheap bench top power supply for the electronics constructor. The power supply unit uses switching regulators to maintain a constant supply with good regulation and short circuit protection cause the unit to shutdown and be re-powered immediately if something goes wrong.

The only downside with using an ATX PSU as a bench power supply is that the cooling fan’s rpm responds to the amount of current being drawn from the PSU so can get a little noisy. Also the ATX PSU requires a certain amount of fresh air to keep it cool inside which may not be possible when laid onto a bench.

All in all, converting an ATX PSU to a bench power supply is an easy project with many uses. Not bad for something that would otherwise get thrown away.


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  • P

    Thank you, it is working! Worked from the first time!

  • A
    Alan Moody

    Great article, I have managed, after only two attempts, to successfully converted an ATX into a useful bench top power supply, thank you for your clear instructions and advice.

  • B
    Bob Maxwell

    I cannot get my ATX supply to turn on. There is 5V on the green wire but when I ground it, nothing happens. There is no brown sense wire to mine. The supply is from an old Dell tower. Am I missing something else?

  • A
    Alex Wong

    I’ve gotten my pc power supply to turn on and run my car stereo with speakers. But I want to write in a power button switch with led,how do I do it? http://www.ebay.com.au/itm/380983926242

  • A

    I reattached my psu the an old pc chassis and ran the power ok to the chassis power led. No resistors. Runs fine without the led. It has power sense wires. Do I need to put in a resistor on the led? Or is that just for the load?

  • S
    Sajjad haider

    I have a power supply in which no green wire is exist. FOLLOWING colors of wires are Red, orange, black, purple, white, brown, gray nd sky blue. I want to make 12v charger

    • E
      Eric N

      I have an older PSU I converted into a bench supply prior to the standardization of the pwr on wires color. Mine ended up being grey. But ultimately just try wiring a jumper from pin 16 to ground. Nothing bad should happen if it’s not the right one since the PSU would still be off and the only constant lines while powered off are some 5 volt lines. If that one doesn’t work just keep going until jumping one to ground eventually spins up the PSU’s fan. That’ll be your pwr on pin. It should be 16 though if it was in any sort ATX computer in the last 10-15 years.

  • S
    Sergey Zhukov

    With 3.3V output you may have some other voltage from your PS: 2.7V(3.35.0), 3.3V (03.3), 8.3V(-5.03.3), 8.7V(3.312.0), 15.3V(-12.03.3).
    Be careful! Negative outputs are very weak! (e.g, on my 400W PS the -12V output can provide 0.5A only, but +12V can provide 20A and +5V – 30A). PowerStandby (+5VSB) as strong as 2A.

  • D

    Many thank for this great post! Can you tell me is it possible to change voltage at Power supply. I mean, I have 230 W but I need 250 W. Can I do it with my PSU by myself?

  • D
    Dana Franklin

    Great article, but I have a question. I’m trying to get a new 1000 watt supply to work. According to your article, I need to burn 100 watts. That would mean I need a 100 watt, .25 ohm resistor. Is that correct? A quick web search reveals that that’s not a real common resistor. Can I combine two or more resistors together to get what I want?


    • J

      You could use a small automotive light bulb. It would draw enough.

    • Wayne Storr

      Not necessarily, the PSU’s generally require some sort of load to allow a small current to flow to keep the power supply ON. 10% load is a good starting point for smaller 200-300 watt psu’s but is a waste of power for your 1000 watt unit. Also, at 5 volts, that’s a lot of amps. Start small and work up until you have a stable power supply. Yes you can add two or more resistors together in series, parallel or combinations of both to get the desires resistive value.

      • D
        Dana Franklin

        Thanks Wayne. I believe I’m up to just 20 watts now and it’s a no go. I may add another 20 and see what happens. The worst part is I can’t readily get resistors where I’m at. I have to plan and hope I’m buying online right the first time. Hence the reason I ask.

        • D
          Dana Franklin

          Interesting. I just tried it again with twice the load as before and it still didn’t work. I then plugged in a jumper by accident with no load at all and it works. So, I guess it doesn’t need a load.

          • Wayne Storr

            That’s good, as long as it works. There are many different types and manufacturers of PSU’s and each one is different so what may work for one may not for another. Mine needed a load to trick the internal circuitry into thinking its connected to a motherboard. I guess you get what you pay for.

  • K

    A power resistor is very wasteful, I’d connect a DC fan to help keep the supply cool while simultaneously keeping the supply on, 2 birds 1 stone. Or if you want to illuminate your workspace, a DC lamp.

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