Both are 3-element networks that contain two reactive components making them a second-order circuit, both are influenced by variations in the supply frequency and both have a frequency point where their two reactive components cancel each other out influencing the characteristics of the circuit. Both circuits have a resonant frequency point.

The difference this time however, is that a parallel resonance circuit is influenced by the currents flowing through each parallel branch within the parallel LC tank circuit. A **tank circuit** is a parallel combination of L and C that is used in filter networks to either select or reject AC frequencies. Consider the parallel RLC circuit below.

### Parallel RLC Circuit

Let us define what we already know about parallel RLC circuits.

A parallel circuit containing a resistance, R, an inductance, L and a capacitance, C will produce a **parallel resonance** (also called anti-resonance) circuit when the resultant current through the parallel combination is in phase with the supply voltage. At resonance there will be a large circulating current between the inductor and the capacitor due to the energy of the oscillations, then parallel circuits produce current resonance.

A *parallel resonant circuit* stores the circuit energy in the magnetic field of the inductor and the electric field of the capacitor. This energy is constantly being transferred back and forth between the inductor and the capacitor which results in zero current and energy being drawn from the supply. This is because the corresponding instantaneous values of I_{L} and I_{C} will always be equal and opposite and therefore the current drawn from the supply is the vector addition of these two currents and the current flowing in I_{R}.

In the solution of AC parallel resonance circuits we know that the supply voltage is common for all branches, so this can be taken as our reference vector. Each parallel branch must be treated separately as with series circuits so that the total supply current taken by the parallel circuit is the vector addition of the individual branch currents.

Then there are two methods available to us in the analysis of parallel resonance circuits. We can calculate the current in each branch and then add together or calculate the admittance of each branch to find the total current.

We know from the previous series resonance tutorial that resonance takes place when V_{L} = -V_{C} and this situation occurs when the two reactances are equal, X_{L} = X_{C}. The admittance of a parallel circuit is given as:

Resonance occurs when X_{L} = X_{C} and the imaginary parts of Y become zero. Then:

Notice that at resonance the parallel circuit produces the same equation as for the series resonance circuit. Therefore, it makes no difference if the inductor or capacitor are connected in parallel or series. Also at resonance the parallel LC tank circuit acts like an open circuit with the circuit current being determined by the resistor, R only. So the total impedance of a parallel resonance circuit at resonance becomes just the value of the resistance in the circuit and Z = R as shown.

At resonance, the impedance of the parallel circuit is at its maximum value and equal to the resistance of the circuit. Also at resonance, as the impedance of the circuit is now that of resistance only, the total circuit current, I will be “in-phase” with the supply voltage, V_{S}.

We can change the circuit’s frequency response by changing the value of this resistance. Changing the value of R affects the amount of current that flows through the circuit at resonance, if both L and C remain constant. Then the impedance of the circuit at resonance Z = R_{MAX} is called the “dynamic impedance” of the circuit.

### Impedance in a Parallel Resonance Circuit

Note that if the parallel circuits impedance is at its maximum at resonance then consequently, the circuits **admittance** must be at its minimum and one of the characteristics of a parallel resonance circuit is that admittance is very low limiting the circuits current. Unlike the series resonance circuit, the resistor in a parallel resonance circuit has a damping effect on the circuits bandwidth making the circuit less selective.

Also, since the circuit current is constant for any value of impedance, Z, the voltage across a parallel resonance circuit will have the same shape as the total impedance and for a parallel circuit the voltage waveform is generally taken from across the capacitor.

We now know that at the resonant frequency, ƒ_{r} the admittance of the circuit is at its minimum and is equal to the conductance, G given by 1/R because in a parallel resonance circuit the imaginary part of admittance, i.e. the susceptance, B is zero because B_{L} = B_{C} as shown.

### Susceptance at Resonance

From above, the *inductive susceptance*, B_{L} is inversely proportional to the frequency as represented by the hyperbolic curve. The *capacitive susceptance*, B_{C} is directly proportional to the frequency and is therefore represented by a straight line. The final curve shows the plot of total susceptance of the parallel resonance circuit versus the frequency and is the difference between the two susceptance’s.

Then we can see that at the resonant frequency point were it crosses the horizontal axis the total circuit susceptance is zero. Below the resonant frequency point, the inductive susceptance dominates the circuit producing a “lagging” power factor, whereas above the resonant frequency point the capacitive susceptance dominates producing a “leading” power factor.

So at the resonant frequency, ƒr the current drawn from the supply must be “in-phase” with the applied voltage as effectively there is only the resistance present in the parallel circuit, so the power factor becomes one or unity, ( θ = 0^{o} ).

Also as the impedance of a parallel circuit changes with frequency, this makes the circuit impedance “dynamic” with the current at resonance being in-phase with the voltage since the impedance of the circuit acts as a resistance. Then we have seen that the impedance of a parallel circuit at resonance is equivalent to the value of the resistance and this value must, therefore represent the maximum dynamic impedance (Z_{d}) of the circuit as shown.

## Current in a Parallel Resonance Circuit

As the total susceptance is zero at the resonant frequency, the admittance is at its minimum and is equal to the conductance, G. Therefore at resonance the current flowing through the circuit must also be at its minimum as the inductive and capacitive branch currents are equal ( I_{L} = I_{C} ) and are 180^{o} out of phase.

We remember that the total current flowing in a parallel RLC circuit is equal to the vector sum of the individual branch currents and for a given frequency is calculated as:

At resonance, currents I_{L} and I_{L} are equal and cancelling giving a net reactive current equal to zero. Then at resonance the above equation becomes.

Since the current flowing through a parallel resonance circuit is the product of voltage divided by impedance, at resonance the impedance, Z is at its maximum value, ( =R ). Therefore, the circuit current at this frequency will be at its minimum value of V/R and the graph of current against frequency for a parallel resonance circuit is given as.

### Parallel Circuit Current at Resonance

The frequency response curve of a parallel resonance circuit shows that the magnitude of the current is a function of frequency and plotting this onto a graph shows us that the response starts at its maximum value, reaches its minimum value at the resonance frequency when I_{MIN} = I_{R} and then increases again to maximum as ƒ becomes infinite.

The result of this is that the magnitude of the current flowing through the inductor, L and the capacitor, C tank circuit can become many times larger than the supply current, even at resonance but as they are equal and at opposition ( 180^{o} out-of-phase ) they effectively cancel each other out.

As a parallel resonance circuit only functions on resonant frequency, this type of circuit is also known as an **Rejecter Circuit** because at resonance, the impedance of the circuit is at its maximum thereby suppressing or rejecting the current whose frequency is equal to its resonant frequency. The effect of resonance in a parallel circuit is also called “current resonance”.

The calculations and graphs used above for defining a parallel resonance circuit are similar to those we used for a series circuit. However, the characteristics and graphs drawn for a parallel circuit are exactly opposite to that of series circuits with the parallel circuits maximum and minimum impedance, current and magnification being reversed. Which is why a parallel resonance circuit is also called an **Anti-resonance** circuit.

## Bandwidth & Selectivity of a Parallel Resonance Circuit

The bandwidth of a parallel resonance circuit is defined in exactly the same way as for the series resonance circuit. The upper and lower cut-off frequencies given as: ƒ_{upper} and ƒ_{lower} respectively denote the half-power frequencies where the power dissipated in the circuit is half of the full power dissipated at the resonant frequency 0.5( I^{2} R ) which gives us the same -3dB points at a current value that is equal to 70.7% of its maximum resonant value, ( 0.707 x I )^{2} R

As with the series circuit, if the resonant frequency remains constant, an increase in the quality factor, **Q** will cause a decrease in the bandwidth and likewise, a decrease in the quality factor will cause an increase in the bandwidth as defined by: BW = ƒ_{r} /Q or BW = ƒ_{upper} - ƒ_{lower}

Also changing the ratio between the inductor, L and the capacitor, C, or the value of the resistance, R the bandwidth and therefore the frequency response of the circuit will be changed for a fixed resonant frequency. This technique is used extensively in tuning circuits for radio and television transmitters and receivers.

The selectivity or **Q-factor** for a parallel resonance circuit is generally defined as the ratio of the circulating branch currents to the supply current and is given as:

Note that the Q-factor of a parallel resonance circuit is the inverse of the expression for the Q-factor of the series circuit. Also in series resonance circuits the Q-factor gives the voltage magnification of the circuit, whereas in a parallel circuit it gives the current magnification.

### Bandwidth of a Parallel Resonance Circuit

## Parallel Resonance Example No1

A parallel resonance network consisting of a resistor of 60Ω, a capacitor of 120uF and an inductor of 200mH is connected across a sinusoidal supply voltage which has a constant output of 100 volts at all frequencies. Calculate, the resonant frequency, the quality factor and the bandwidth of the circuit, the circuit current at resonance and current magnification.

Resonant Frequency, ƒ_{r}

Inductive Reactance at Resonance, X_{L}

Quality factor, Q

Bandwidth, BW

The upper and lower -3dB frequency points, ƒ_{H} and ƒ_{L}

Circuit Current at Resonance, I_{T}

At resonance the dynamic impedance of the circuit is equal to R

Current Magnification, I_{mag}

Note that the current drawn from the supply at resonance (the resistive current) is only 1.67 amps, while the current flowing around the LC tank circuit is larger at 2.45 amps. We can check this value by calculating the current flowing through the inductor (or capacitor) at resonance.

## Parallel Resonance Tutorial Summary

We have seen that **Parallel Resonance** circuits are similar to series resonance circuits. Resonance occurs in a parallel RLC circuit when the total circuit current is “in-phase” with the supply voltage as the two reactive components cancel each other out. At resonance the admittance of the circuit is at its minimum and is equal to the conductance of the circuit. Also at resonance the current drawn from the supply is also at its minimum and is determined by the value of the parallel resistance.

The equation used to calculate the resonant frequency point is the same for the previous series circuit. However, while the use of either pure or impure components in the series RLC circuit does not affect the calculation of the resonance frequency, but in a parallel RLC circuit it does.

In this tutorial about parallel resonance, we have assumed that the components are purely inductive and purely capacitive with negligible resistance. However in reality the coil will contain some resistance. Then the equation for calculating the parallel resonant frequency of a circuit is therefore modified to account for the additional resistance.

### Resonant Frequency using Impure Components

I dont understand how there can be a half power bandwidth on a parallel RLC? Since power is purely dissipated over the resistor ,(energy stored in capacitor and inductor) , and the voltage across the resistor is constant surely power is constant too?

The point at which the voltage gain drops to 0.7071 of maximum (or 1/(root 2) of normal) is considered to be were the output power drops to half its normal value and is called the -3dB half power point. Equally either side of the center resonance frequency are the two lower and upper half power points that represents the sharpness of the resonance response. The distance between the two -3dB half power points represents the bandwidth (BW) and is therefore the half-power bandwidth. The sharpness of the resonance is given by the quality factor Q, as at resonance, the reactive energy oscillates between the inductor and the capacitor. Q = Resonance frequency/half-power bandwidth.

Sorry – I’m probably being stupid here – I understood all that works for a series circuit (and even a parallel circuit where there is a resistor in series with the voltage source before the parallel combination). However in the diagram at the top of the page isn’t the voltage gain by definition always equal to 1 as voltage stays constant. If there was an internal resistance though, your answer seems to work though.

Sorry again if I am being stupid – I appreciate your help

In a parallel LC circuit, the coil and capacitor are placed in parallel and the applied voltage, Vs appears across these circuit components. Resonance occurs when the inductive reactance, XL is equal to the capacitive reactance, Xc thus the current in the inductive branch, IL equals the current in the capacitive branch, Ic.

As IL lags the applied voltage by 90 degs, and Ic leads the applied voltage by 90 degs, the two phasor currents are therefore equal and out of phase by 180 degs so their vector sum is effectively zero. Under this condition the circuit impedance (purely resistive) is at a maximum in a parallel resonant circuit. The Q magnification factor determines by how much the impedance across the parallel LC circuit is increased due to the line current at the resonant frequency. Then for a parallel resonance circuit, Current, Impedance and Q-factor are affected while voltage stays constant.

i have a practical problem where i need a relatively high reactive electric current in high voltage environment, so i think parallel resonance is the solution , if the frequency is 50 khz l= 100 uh c = 100 nf and the voltage is 10 KV THE impedance Z = 31.6 so the reactive current can achieve 10.000 / 31.6 = 333 A !

is this correct ? explain please ðŸ™‚

At resonance, that is the frequency at which the inductive reactance, XL equals the capacitive reactance, Xc, the impedance of the circuit is minimised becoming a pure resistance and the resultant current (i) comes into phase with the supply voltage. Then at resonance, i = V/R. This supply current is very small in comparison to IL and IC because it is their phasor sum and they operate in opposite directions.

Thanks a lot

A parallel resonant circuit contains R=2Kiloohm,L=12.5mH and C=0.05Î¼F.Find Wo,alpha,Wd,Q0 and admittance.

Very nice and easy to get the most important things

I have a question on a parallel RLC circuit. If the Vs is displayed in the format 10sin (1000t). How do i convert it to volts and hertz ?

V(t) = Vp sin(wt) = 10 sin(1000t)

Vp = 10 volts or Vrms = Vp x 0.7071 = 7.071 volts.

w = 2pif = 1000, therefore f = w/(2pi) = 1000/6.284 = 159Hz

really helpful

Hi,

I’d like to know what kinds of issues that could come when 2 ac voltage supply sources are feeding a resonant filter (LCL+load ) through 2 LCL filters … and how to compute their respective resonance (parallel ,series ..)

Thanks you

Hi,

I reckon that there is a mistake in Zd, as we can see at resonance Z=R. This Zd is achieved when there is an LR series in parallel with C.

Use the Cauchy – Riemann equations to determine which plan check in the region of the function f ( z ) = x ^ 3 + i (3 + y) ^ 3 is differentiable . Complete check if the function is analytic or not.